This book covers the latest progress in the field of transparent ceramics, emphasizing their processing as well as solid-state lasers. It consists of 10 chapters covering the synthesis, characterization and compaction, fundamentals of sintering, densification of transparent ceramics by different methods as well as transparent ceramic applications. This book can be used as a reference for senior undergraduate to postgraduate students, researchers, engineers and material scientists working in solid-state physics.
This monograph provides a methodological approach for establishing demand-oriented levels of energy transparency of factories. The author presents a systematic indication of energy drivers and cost factors, taking into account the interdependencies between facility and production domains. Particular attention is given to energy flow metering and monitoring. Readers will also be provided with an in-depth description of a planning tool which allows for systematically deriving suitable metering points in complex factory environments. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field of factory planning, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.
This book provides a systematic presentation of the principles and practices behind the synthesis and functionalization of graphene and grapheme oxide (GO), as well as the fabrication techniques for transparent conductors from these materials.Transparent conductors are used in a wide variety of photoelectronic and photovoltaic devices, such as liquid crystal displays (LCDs), solar cells, optical communication devices, and solid-state lighting. Thin films made from indium tin oxide (ITO) have thus far been the dominant source of transparent conductors, and now account for 50% of indium consumption. However, the price of Indium has increased 1000% in the last 10 years. Graphene, a two-dimensional monolayer of sp2-bonded carbon atoms, has attracted significant interest because of its unique transport properties. Because of their high optical transmittance and electrical conductivity, thin film electrodes made from graphene nanosheets have been considered an ideal candidate to replace expensive ITO films.Graphene for Transparent Conductors offers a systematic presentation of the principles, theories and technical practices behind the structure-property relationship of the thin films, which are the key to the successful development of high-performance transparent conductors. At the same time, the unique perspectives provided in the applications of graphene and GO as transparent conductors will serve as a general guide to the design and fabrication of thin film materials for specific applications.
This book focuses on new and emerging data mining solutions that offer a greater level of transparency than existing solutions. Transparent data mining solutions with desirable properties (e.g. effective, fully automatic, scalable) are covered in the book. Experimental findings of transparent solutions are tailored to different domain experts, and experimental metrics for evaluating algorithmic transparency are presented. The book also discusses societal effects of black box vs. transparent approaches to data mining, as well as real-world use cases for these approaches.As algorithms increasingly support different aspects of modern life, a greater level of transparency is sorely needed, not least because discrimination and biases have to be avoided. With contributions from domain experts, this book provides an overview of an emerging area of data mining that has profound societal consequences, and provides the technical background to for readers to contribute to the field or to put existing approaches to practical use.
Since 1997, the Ecosystem Management Decision Support (EMDS) system has been used around the world to support environmental analysis and planning in many different application areas, and it has been applied over a wide range of geographic scales, from forest stands to entire countries. An extensive sampling of this diversity of applications is presented in section 2, in which EMDS application developers describe the varied uses of the system. These accounts, together with the requisite background in section 1, provide valuable practical insights into how the system can be applied in the general domain of environmental management.
Transparent electrodes (TEs) are a class of materials that make it possible to bring electrical current or potentials in close proximity to optically active regions without significant loss of optical energy. However, it is a challenge to decouple the electrical and optical properties of a material, as the property of conductivity is strongly coupled to the imaginary part of the refractive index. An ideal TE has high transparency in combination with very low electrical resistivity. The main objective of the thesis was to develop TEs which can replace expensive, scarce and fragile Indium Tin Oxide (ITO), the most widely used TE material in the industry today. The thesis contains original work on ultrathin metal film (UTMF)-based TEs, which are essential elements in a wide range of optoelectronics, consumer electronics and energy devices. It presents new designs and fabrication methods and demonstrates the efficient use of UTMF-TEs in organic light emitting diodes and solar cells, achieving similar levels of efficiency to that of state-of-the-art ITO.
Transparent conducting materials are key elements in a wide variety of current technologies including flat panel displays, photovoltaics, organic, low-e windows and electrochromics. The needs for new and improved materials is pressing, because the existing materials do not have the performance levels to meet the ever- increasing demand, and because some of the current materials used may not be viable in the future. In addition, the field of transparent conductors has gone through dramatic changes in the last 5-7 years with new materials being identified, new applications and new people in the field.
"Handbook of Transparent Conductors" presents transparent conductors in a historical perspective, provides current applications as well as insights into the future of the devices. It is a comprehensive reference, and represents the most current resource on the subject.
Recent research in health decision making has shown that many patients, even those with a college education, have difficulties grasping a host of numerical concepts, including percentages and probabilities. Yet, basic numeracy and graph literacy are essential for understanding information relevant to making decisions about health, such as the incidence and prevalence of different diseases, risk reductions from medical screenings and treatments, and risk increases from side effects of treatments and unhealthy behaviors. Patients who have problems understanding such numerical concepts are often prone to errors in risk perception and medical choices. Importantly, informed medical decision making, heavily reinforced these days by the legal requirement for informed consent, depends critically on communication of quantitative medical information. Meeting the challenge of effectively communicating medical information to patients with different levels of numeracy and graph literacy has become more important than ever. Transparent Communication of Health Risks describes a series of cross-cultural studies investigating how people in countries with different medical and educational systems understand numerical and graphical information, what they know about existing medical treatments and screenings, which presentation formats help them better understand the relevant information, and how they use the data to make medical decisions. Focusing on the careful measurement of necessary knowledge and skills, the book also includes validated numeracy and graph literacy scales in English, Spanish, and German. Some of the topics covered in the book are:numeracy and graph literacy for health;measuring risk comprehension in educated samples;communicating information about medical treatment and screening;reducing the effect of framed messages about health;the effect of individual differences on shared decision making; andtransparent health information in the media.Transparent Communication of Health Risks emphasizes the importance and value of working toward the development of tailored risk communication interventions and clarifies the tasks ahead for health psychologists, public health professionals, pharmaceutical and medical education companies, medical physicists, and nurses.
No existing user-authentication approaches provide universally strong user authentication, while also taking into account the human factors of good security design. A reevaluation is therefore vitally necessary to ensure user authentication is relevant, usable, secure and ubiquitous.This groundbreaking text/reference examines the problem of user authentication from a completely new viewpoint. Rather than describing the requirements, technologies and implementation issues of designing point-of-entry authentication, the book introduces and investigates the technological requirements of implementing transparent user authentication - where authentication credentials are captured during a user's normal interaction with a system. This approach would transform user authentication from a binary point-of-entry decision to a continuous identity confidence measure.Topics and features: discusses the need for user authentication, identifying current thinking and why it falls short of providing real and effective levels of information security; reviews existing authentication approaches, providing an in-depth analysis of how each operates; introduces novel behavioural biometrics techniques, such as keystroke analysis, behavioural profiling, and handwriting recognition; examines the wider system-specific issues with designing large-scale multimodal authentication systems; concludes with a look to the future of user authentication, what the technological landscape might look like, and the effects upon the people using these systems.This unique work is essential reading for all researchers interested in user authentication, biometric systems and behavioural profiling. Postgraduate and advanced undergraduate students of computer science will also benefit from the detailed coverage of the theory of authentication in general, and of transparent authentication in particular.
This book presents the underlying physical picture and an overview of the state of the art of femtosecond supercontinuum generation in various transparent solid-state media, ranging from wide-bandgap dielectrics to semiconductor materials, and across various parts of the optical spectrum, from the ultraviolet to the mid-infrared. A particular emphasis is placed on the most recent experimental developments: multioctave supercontinuum generation with pumping in the mid-infrared spectral range, spectral control, power and energy scaling of broadband radiation and the development of simple, flexible and robust pulse compression techniques, which deliver few optical cycle pulses and which could be readily implemented in a variety of modern ultrafast laser systems. The expected audience includes graduate students, professionals and scientists working in the field of laser-matter interactions and ultrafast nonlinear optics.
This book provides a solid foundation for a comprehensive, systemic and water-centric approach to water management. Said approach integrates two performance principles essential for sustainable water use systems, namely equity and efficiency. Further, it decreases the policy space for decision-making encountered by water managers and makes it easier to arrive at reasonable solutions because of the bounded rationality inherent in its development. By combining the distributive and aggregative principles, the approach offers a transparent and autonomous structure for gathering water data and enabling stakeholder involvement. Lastly, it employs and promotes a unifying language for all types of water use systems, e.g. urban, agricultural and industrial.
Vor dem Hintergrund der weiterhin kontrovers geführten Diskussion um eine zweckadäquate Goodwill-Bilanzierung untersucht Fabian Rauschenberg die diesbezügliche Berichterstattungspraxis innerhalb der IFRS-Konzernabschlüsse seit der Einführung des Impairment Only Approaches. Dabei werden unterschiedliche Voraussetzungen dafür identifiziert, dass Vermgenswerte in Konzernbilanzen ausgewiesen werden, deren wirtschaftlicher Nutzen zweifelhaft ist. Zur Veranschaulichung dieser Zusammenhänge werden Fallstudien konkreter Bilanzierungssachverhalte verwendet und das Potenzial der Goodwill-Berichterstattung im Rahmen der Steuerung und Überwachung von Unternehmen beleuchtet. Die gewonnenen Erkenntnisse münden in ein Konzept zur Erhhung der Entscheidungsnützlichkeit der Rechnungslegung und zur Stärkung der Corporate Governance.
Dieses Buch beschreibt anhand konkreter Beispiele das Entstehen einer Krise, wie man ihr vorbeugen und wie man sie zum eigenen Vorteil nutzen kann. Die Autorinnen erläutern, wie man sich mit Krisenpotenzialen auseinandersetzt und sich darauf vorbereitet, im Fall einer Krise oder eines Shitstorms transparent und authentisch zu handeln. Praktische Checklisten sowie Tipps und Tricks unter Berücksichtigung der neuesten technologischen Mglichkeiten ergänzen das Buch.